Autism is a complex neurobehavioral condition that includes impairments in social interaction and developmental language and communication skills combined with rigid, repetitive behaviours. Because of the range of symptoms, this condition is now called Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD).
It covers a large spectrum of symptoms, skills, and levels of impairment. ASD ranges in severity from a handicap that somewhat limits an otherwise normal life to a devastating disability that may require institutional care.
ADD / ADHD is the most commonly diagnosed mental disorder of children. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a brain disorder marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development.
Cerebral palsy is a disorder of movement, muscle tone or posture that is caused by damage that occurs to the immature, developing brain, most often before birth. Signs and symptoms appear during infancy or preschool years.
In general, cerebral palsy causes impaired movement associated with abnormal reflexes, floppiness or rigidity of the limbs and trunk, abnormal posture, involuntary movements, unsteady walking, or some combination of these.
Down syndrome also known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21. It is typically associated with physical growth delays, mild to moderate intellectual disability, and characteristic facial features.
Language Difficulty (language delay) is a type of communication disorder. Your child may have a language delay if they don’t meet the language developmental milestones for their age. Their language abilities may be developing at a slower rate than most children’s. They may have trouble expressing themselves or understanding others. Their delay may involve a combination of hearing, speech, and cognitive impairments.
Learning Difficulty is a condition that can cause an individual to experience problems in a traditional classroom learning context. It may interfere with literacy skills development and math/maths and can also affect memory, ability to focus and organizational skills.
PANS and PANDAS are infection-induced autoimmune conditions that disrupt a patient’s normal neurologic functioning, resulting in a sudden onset of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and/or motor tics.
PANS and PANDAS can include a variety of other symptoms such as anorexia (food restrictions), anxiety, irritability, hyperactivity, sleep disturbances, mood swings and urinary problems.
Mitochondrial diseases result from failures of the mitochondria, specialized compartments present in every cell of the body (except red blood cells).
Mitochondria are responsible for creating more than 90% of the energy needed by the body to sustain life and support organ function. When they fail, less and less energy is generated within the cell. Cell injury and even cell death follow. If this process is repeated throughout the body, whole organ systems begin to fail. The parts of the body, such as the heart, brain, muscles and lungs, requiring the greatest amounts of energy are the most affected.
Mitochondrial disease is difficult to diagnose, because it affects each individual differently. Symptoms can include seizures, strokes, severe developmental delays, inability to walk, talk, see, and digest food combined with a host of other complications. If three or more organ systems are involved, mitochondrial disease should be suspected.
Paediatric rare diseases have received increased attention in recent years due to greater public awareness, significantly improved understanding and treatment of the relatively more common disorders, elimination of nutritional deficiencies. A disease is considered rare when it affects less than 200,000 individuals in the US or less than one in 2,000 people in Europe.
Rare disease including those of genetic origin, are life threatening or chronically debilitating diseases which are of such low prevalence that special combined efforts are needed to address them. Examples of rare diseases are:
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